eISSN: 2719-3209
ISSN: 0023-2157
Klinika Oczna / Acta Ophthalmologica Polonica
Bieżący numer Archiwum Filmy Artykuły w druku O czasopiśmie Suplementy Rada naukowa Bazy indeksacyjne Prenumerata Kontakt Zasady publikacji prac Standardy etyczne i procedury
vol. 123
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Diagnostyka, klasyfikacja i leczenie zespołu suchego oka w dobie infekcji COVID-19

Paweł Reisner
Grażyna Malukiewicz

Department of Eye Diseases, Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Poland
KLINIKA OCZNA 2021, 123, 1: 8–13
Data publikacji online: 2021/03/31
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The first cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were reported in China, in December 2019. Since then, the disease has been spreading fast around the world, also in Poland. The pathogen of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified as a member of the family Coronaviridae [1, 2]. The extensive experience of Chinese physicians and scientists in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic points towards the possibility of ocular manifestations of the infection and the risk of coronavirus transmission through the eyes. Ocular disorders can be the first presenting symptoms of COVID-19 and the only signs of infection [3]. The common symptoms of dry eye syndrome (DES) include excessive tearing, dryness, burning sensation, and blurred vision. All of them cause discomfort, leading to frequent rubbing and touching of the eye area, and thus increasing the risk of infection. Based on the cases reported in China, dry eye syndrome can be either a contributing factor to SARS-CoV-2 infection or its sole manifestation. With respect to measures preventing COVID-19 infection, an important role has been attributed to the optimal treatment of underlying diseases (diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma and others – including dry eye syndrome) as well as physical activity and appropriate diet which enhance immunity by decreasing pro-inflammatory factors and increasing the level of antioxidants. Regarding the healthy diet, WHO experts place a special emphasis on a sufficient intake of vegetables and fruit that are rich in vitamins and flavonoids, and supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) [4]. Among other functions, the latter are an essential product for the synthesis of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins. However, omega-3, omega-6 and vitamin supplementation is also considered as one of the recommended strategies in the management of dry eye syndrome [5].

Aim of the study

The aims of the paper are to review the diagnostic and therapeutic options for dry eye syndrome (DES), and present COVID-19 prevention measures.

Material and methods

Review of research papers and articles on the ocular manifestations of COVID-19 and dry eye syndrome found in the PubMed and ClinicalKey databases, as well as the Consensus Statement of the Ocular Surface Academy, and TFOS DEWS II Guidelines.

Definition of dry eye syndrome

With the advancement of medicine...

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